Winter Sowing Seeds – Step by Step (w/ pictures)

Hello! For the last six years I’ve been winter sowing annual, perennial, and vegetable seeds to get a head start on gardening for the year! I’ve found it to be the most economical and simple way to produce cold-hardy seedlings that requires minimum effort. My process really works, as I’ve grown thousands of plants in this manner (no exaggeration). Read on to see my tried and true process!

What is Winter Sowing?

Winter sowing is the process by which we sow seeds outdoors in the winter, but contained within miniature DIY green houses! The outdoors part allows mother nature to cold stratify our seeds naturally. The mini-green house allows our seeds to germinate while we are still getting freezing temperatures at night.

However, our seedlings will survive and be ‘cold’ hardy by early Spring! So, there is no ‘hardening off’ of young seedlings as you have to if started indoors. They are ready to plant in the ground directly after the last frost date.

I grow a lot of plants via winter sowing…….every year

Materials Required

  • A clean milk jugs, or plastic container/pot with covered dome
  • Scissors or knife
  • Basic potting soil
  • Watering can or sprayer
  • Seeds

Step by Step Process How to Winter Sow Seeds

Note, I generally try to have all of my seeds winter sown by New Years day. There are no ‘one-size fits all’ rules to this. However, at the end of this process I will discuss when you need to be done winter sowing your seeds in more detail.

  1. Prepare plastic container or DIY greenhouse. There are many different options for a container. Everything from a milk jug or take-out food container to a specially purchased 1020 tray with plant inserts and plastic dome.
    • For a 1020 tray with inserts and plastic dome:
      1. Add air holes: Use a pocket knife to add drain holes to the 1020 tray if none are present. Holes should be 3-6 mm diameter (1/8″-1/4″)
      2. Use knife to poke holes around the side of the dome (every 4″ or 10 cm). Also, poke about 6 – 8 holes that are 1/4″ diameter (6 mm) in the top of the dome.
    • For a Milk Jug or other plastic container (DIY Greenhouse):
      1. Discard the lid to the milk jug. You don’t need it. The top of the jug will serve as air exchange/ventilation later in Spring.
      2. Use a knife or scissors to cut the milk jug nearly in half. Almost like making a flip-up lid on the jug.
      3. Use knife to add drain holes about 1/8-1/4″ diameter (3-6 mm)
  2. Fill your containers with moistened potting soil. Mix potting soil or seed starting mix with water until it is damp and clumps. Then, add the soil to the plastic containers to about 1/4″-1/2″ (6-12 mm) below the top edge.
  3. Plant your seeds. Plant seeds to the appropriate depth.
  4. Label your seeds/containers.
    1. I use masking tape and a sharpe marker to label. It tends to last all winter. Just keep the label pointed away from the sun.
  5. Secure the lids on your containers.
    • For a milk jug or something similar, just use duct tape to seal the outside
    • For a 1020 tray w/ dome, I use duct tape and twine to ensure the lid stays secure.
  6. Place your container outside. I put mine in an area that receives no sun. My reason for doing this is it prevents any premature germination (I’ve had seeds germinate in early February before!).
  7. Wait until Spring! You shouldn’t need to water your containers. The plastic domes will act as green houses and help retain moisture.
    • But, if the outside temperatures are above freezing, and your potting soil looks dry you may need to water.
    • To safely add water to your containers, do one of the following methods:
      • Water from the bottom. Place your milk jug container or tray in a large plastic tray or kiddie pool, and add some water. The water will enter the drain holes, and through osmosis moisten the potting soil.
      • Mist the soil. Carefully remove the lid and use a sprayer to mist the soil until saturated. Then secure the lid.
  8. Put the containers in a location that receives morning sun / afternoon shade.
    • This step is really helpful. Allowing them morning sun but afternoon shade will get the mini-greenhouses warm, but avoid the hotter afternoon sun.
    • Doing this really helps the seeds germinate quickly, but reduces the overall heat load. Reducing the heat load means less watering for you, so easier!
  9. Open the lids during the daytime
    • Once outdoor temperatures approach 60 F (15 C), remove the lids. In direct sunlight,
  10. Remove the seedlings. You can dig out the chunk of soil from the milk jug / container. I prefer to do this when seedlings have two sets of ‘true leaves’.

When should you winter sow seeds?

There are no ‘cut off’ dates to winter sowing seeds. The real determining factors are what kind of cold stratification your seeds need. In general, if you look up your typical last frost date, and subtract the number of recommended cold stratification days, you can determine when you need to have the seeds sown.

For example, many perennial flowers require a 30 or 60 day cold moist stratification period. So, for my area, USDA zone 6 that means I should have all of my seeds winter sown no later than March 1st, as this is 60 days before our historical last frost date of May 1st.

When to winter sow vegetables

For vegetables, I generally will winter sow them on April 1st. This usually includes tomatoes, several kinds of hot peppers, zucchini, and cucumbers.

What kind of containers should you use?

The kinds of containers I use for winter sowing depends on how many plants I need. If I feel that I only need six plants of a species, then I use 6-packs and the 1020 tray. If I think I want more seedlings, then I utilize a milk jug or larger plastic container.


Winter Sowing

Joe Foster

Hi - I grew up outdoors in nature - hiking, fishing, hunting. In high school I got my first job at a garden center where I learned to garden and landscape. I've been growing plants from seed and designing native plant gardens for over six years. I hope to share some of my knowledge with you! Additionally I am a wood worker / DIY enthusiast. I enjoy designing/building projects (with hand tools when I can!). I hope to give you some tips and useful information!

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