The Shagbark Hickory Tree is a deciduous hardwood tree native to Eastern North America that grows 90′ tall by 70′ wide in optimum growing conditions of full sun & well drained soil. Prized by both humans and animals, it produces edible nuts in late Summer & hosts dozens of insects. It’s lumber is used for flooring, cabinets, and great firewood.
In this article I will teach you everything you need to know about this tree, from interesting facts, grow and care, wildlife associations, diseases, and how to germinate the nuts.
In this article
- Shagbark Hickory Facts / Quick Reference
- Pros and cons of the Shagbark Hickory Tree
- How to Identify Shagbark Hickory
- Shagbark Hickory Nuts – production, edible, storage
- How to Grow and Care for Shagbark Hickory Trees
- How to grow Shagbark Hickory from Seed / Nut Germination
- What Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases effect Shagbark Hickory
- Where to buy Shagbark Hickory Trees
- Uses of Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory Facts / Quick Reference
For a tree that looks shapely and stately far away, but curious and interesting up close, look no further than Shagbark Hickory. This amazing tree provides interest to landscapes, beauty to horizons, and life to insects, birds, animals, and humans.
Facts about Shagbark Hickory tree
- After impressing his backwoods soldiers with his toughness, future President Andrew Jackson was given the nickname “Old Hickory”.
- Will typically grow to 60-80′ tall, but in nature can reach a staggering 130′ (40 m)
- The bark of Shagbark Hickory is one of the most distinct in North America, with large 1′ long strips of bark that peel off the trunk.
- The bark can be used for flavoring syrup. If the bark is baked, and then boiled to make a tea, it can be turned into syrup by adding equal parts sugar.
- Shagbark Hickory tree produces edible nuts that are grown commercially. The meat of the nut tastes similar, but milder than Black Walnut.
- The meat of the nut of Shagbark Hickory is nutritious, with lots of protein and fiber.
- The tough wood was sought by Native Americans for making bows and snowshoes
Native Range of Shagbark Hickory
The native range of the Shagbark Hickory runs from Minnesota to Southern Texas, East to South Carolina and the Atlantic Coast, and then North to New England and parts of Canada.
The Shagbark Hickory tree has adapted itself to one of the largest native ranges of all Hickory trees. It has adapted to the hot temperatures of Southern Texas, and the frigid Winters of Minnesota and Maine. If you live in the continental US and are east of the Missouri River, chances are you could grow this tree.
Shagbark Hickory Tree quick reference table
|Common Name||Shagbark Hickory, Shellbark Hickory, Scalybark Hickory, Carolina Hickory, Shagbark|
|Scientific name||Carya ovata|
|Color||In Spring, yellow/Green/Red drooping catkins of flowers at the end of young twigs/shoots|
|Fruit||Green nuts, 2-3″ diameter ripen in late Summer|
|Crown Spread||40-50′ wide in the open.|
|Light Requirements||Full sun / Partial Shade|
|Soil Types||Sandy loam, Clay, Loam|
|Moisture||Well drained moist to dry/medium moist soils.|
|Maintenance||Picking up nuts and unwanted seedlings, 20 years after you planted it.|
|Typical Use||Nut production, landscaping|
|Fauna Associations||Bees, bumblebees, hummingbirds, butterflies, and moths. Game birds eat seeds. Deer browse foliage.|
|Larval Host||Over 50 species of insect larvae, including butterflies and moths|
|Sowing Depth||1/4″ (6 mm)|
|Stratification||None required. Seed must be scarified.|
|Native Range||Appalachian Mountains, Ozarks, Isolated driftless regions of United States|
|Growing Zones||USDA Zones 3-8|
Pros and cons of the Shagbark Hickory Tree
A mature Shagbark Hickory tree can produce hundreds of delicious edible nuts every year. They can start producing at 10 years of age, but don’t come into full production until year 40. However, they can produce bumper crops every 1-3 years for 200+ years!
Shagbark Hickory lumber is frequently used in flooring for it’s durability and hardness. But depending on the tree you can obtain some of the most beautiful contrasting colors of light wood with dark brown designs. It can provide a truly unique and beautiful appearance.
Shagbark Hickory trees turn a beautiful yellow to orange color in fall. They can be quite striking as isolated specimens or massed.
Mature Shagbark Hickory trees are valuable from nut production, lumber, or even just firewood. Growing these trees is a long term investment that can pay off for future generations.
Great for wildlife
There are over 180 insects that utilize Shagbark Hickory trees for food. These insects make up the base of the food chain. These insects will feed other insects as well as birds, which further contribute to the food chain. All of this is saying nothing of the nuts produced, which is a preferred food of chipmunks and squirrels.
The tall stately ovoid crown of a Shagbark Hickory makes a beautiful appearance set against the horizon. These trees grow very large, but are somewhat contained in comparison to many other large trees such as Oak.
Very often unique and exotic trees become popular in suburbia. Well, our own native species have much to offer! The large peeling plates of the Shagbark Hickory are eye catching and unique.
Shagbark Hickory trees produce Juglone. Juglone is an allelopathic chemical that will inhibit the growth of some other plants such as tomatoes. A general recommendation is to keep Juglone sensitive plants 50′ away from the crown of a Juglone producing tree.
There is one silver lining to it producing Juglone. This Juglone has been found to also have insect repellent properties, as the European Elm beetle Scolytus multistriatus will not eat the bark of the tree. 
Nuts in the yard
As much as I sing the praise of the delicious and nutritious Shagbark Hickory nuts, they certainly won’t be welcomed by everybody. The nuts (with husks) are up to 3″ diameter, and could easily get sent flying by a lawnmower. One can also trip on the round nuts while still in their husks. And finally, people who have children that have nut allergies may not want the nuts around.
All good things come to those who wait, and that definitely applies to Shagbark Hickory trees. The growth rate is roughly 1′ per year, making it a slower growing tree. This is a tree you will be planting for your children or grandchildren to enjoy, unfortunately.
How to Identify Shagbark Hickory
Trunk & Crown
Shagbark Hickories will typically reach heights of 80′ tall with a straight trunk up to 3-4′ diameter and a oblong or ovoid crown. As a general rule, the crown width of a Shagbark Hickory will be 1/4 to 1/2 of the height. So it is a tree that is much taller than wide. The upper branches will be ascending of the trunk, while the lower branches are descending.
Shagbark Hickory Bark Identification
The mature bark of Shagbark Hickory is very rough textured or ‘shaggy’ and medium gray in color. One can easily peel strips or plates of the thick bark from the tree. Bark plate/strips can easily reach 1′ in length that warp or curve away from the trunk.
Young bark is medium gray and more smooth, as is the branch bark as well.
Shagbark Hickory Leaf Identification
Shagbark Hickory leaves are distinct (like all Hickories) in that they are compound, odd-pinnate with 5 leaflets. And individual leaflet is 3-8″ long and half as wide, is broad-elliptic in shape and will have serrated edge. The upper surface of leaflets is medium to dark green and the underside is lighter or pale green. Leaflet petioles (stems) are shorter measuring roughly 1/8″ long.
As a monoecious tree, male flowers are 4-6″ long and appear at axils of leaves from the previous season. While female flowers are short spikes that are 1/4″-5/16″ long and appear on new shoots. Pollinated female flowers will turn into nuts that ripen in late Summer / early Fall.
The root system of Shagbark Hickory consists of a deep and extensive tap root system. This makes Shagbark Hickory a tough tree that can stand tall against heavy winds.
Shagbark Hickory Nut
The nut of Shagbark Hickory trees can be found as a single fruit or in clusters of three nuts. Nuts are 1 to 2.5″ long and kind of an oval shape. They are covered in a green husk that will shrink and peel away from the nut as it dries after falling from the tree.
Nuts will ripen in late Summer, and generally begin falling from the tree from September through December. They are easy to pick up, harvest and store. Shagbark Hickory nuts weigh approximately 1/6 oz (4.5 g), and the meat of the nut is quite tasty, having a slightly milder flavor than Black Walnut.
How long does it take for Hickory Trees to produce nuts?
A Shagbark Hickory tree can start to produce nuts at 10-15 years of age, and will reach commercial seedbearing age at approximately 40 years of age. It will be able to produce nuts of sufficient commercial quantity for 60-200 years. 
How many nuts are produced by a mature Shagbark Hickory Tree?
Grown in the open, some commercial seed bearing Shagbark Hickory trees can produce 50-70 liters of nuts in a bumper crop year. Typically, high seed producing crops occur every 1-3 years. The diameter and crown size are the best indicators of how many seeds a tree can produce.
Surveys of a forest in Southeastern Ohio that is dominant or codominant with Shagbark Hickory trees measured the amount of nuts produced over a six year period. The table below shows some variation of that amount of nuts one could expect in a forest environment (with other trees competing for sun) based on a trees diameter breast height.
|Tree Diameter Breast Height (d.b.h)||Age (years)||Seeds / year|
|8.1″ (20.7 cm)||60||16|
|10.3″ (26.1 cm)||75||36|
|17.8″ (45.1 cm)||90||225|
Tips on harvesting Shagbark Hickory nuts
Shagbark Hickory nuts are one of the most preferred foods among squirrels and chipmunks. So much so that it can be difficult to harvest any nuts once they begin falling from the tree. I have a large mature Shagbark Hickory that borders my backyard, but the crown is almost completely over a forest. Because of this, I almost never get any Hickory nuts from this tree, as the squirrels and chipmunks gather them as quickly as they fall.
So, what is the best way to harvest these nuts? Simply to find a tree that is more exposed or out in the open. Trees that are isolated along fences or in pastures that have at least 50′ of open space before a forest will not have all their nuts taken by squirrels and chipmunks. This is because the open space between the tree and other areas is a ‘swoop zone’ for hawks, owls, and other predatory raptors! The squirrels can’t go foraging at will because they are exposed.
So, work hard to find trees that have at least some opening around them, and you should have better luck collecting Hickory nuts. Also, float test all nuts you collect. Any nut that floats is not fully formed and should be discarded. For more background and info on the float test, as well as some summarized scientific studies, see our write up here.
Cracking Hickory Nuts
Cracking Hickory nuts is not too difficult, as far as nuts go. One can to so with a pair of channel locks, although you may wish to wear safety glasses when doing so. It is easier to crack the nuts if you use a vise, or the absolute easiest way is with this nutcracker. It is BY FAR the easiest way to crack any nut.
For pulling the meats out, you should use a nut picker, or even a small pair of wire cutters.
Nutritional value of Shagbark Hickory nuts
It is easy to understand why Shagbark Hickory nuts were so prized by Native Americans and pioneers, as Shagbark Hickory nuts are high in calories, fats, protein and dietary fiber, but low in cholesterol. They are very high in Vitamin A and B5 compared to other nuts, as well as Potassium, calcium, and magnesium. 
Storing Shagbark Hickory Nuts
Shelled Shagbark Hickory nuts can be frozen and stored. Husked nuts that sink in water, but still in their shell can be stored for one year or more.
How to Grow and Care for Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees that are planted in their preferred growing conditions of sun/soil/moisture will not require any special treatment or care. That is the true secret of successfully growing anything – place the plant/tree in conditions that it prefers.
Natural Habitat of Shagbark Hickory
You can find the Shagbark Hickory tree growing in a wide variety of natural settings. It will grow best in more humid climates, but has adapted itself to a variety of settings. It can be found growing on river bottoms with alluvial soil that drains well, on south facing slopes in it’s northern range, all throughout the Appalachian Mountains, and hardwood forests.  
In it’s northernmost range it is frequently found on South facing slopes, while in the South it is found on more loose, alluvial soils. Shagbark Hickory trees are often found growing near other similar sized hardwoods such as Oak and Maples. One may also find Pawpaw trees growing amongst hickories.
Shagbark Hickory trees will grow best in full sun, which is at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. But it will tolerate partial shade, which is four to six hours per day. To maximize the growth rate, plant Shagbark Hickory trees in full sun.
For soil requirements, Shagbark Hickory trees grow best in loam, but will grow fine in clay and tolerate sandy loam. The key is that the soil drains well.
For moisture, Shagbark Hickory trees can tolerate slightly moist to dry sites as long as the soil drains well. The deep taproot of Shagbark Hickory allows it flexibility in that it can draw water from the deep ground.
As a native plan, Shagbark Hickory trees will not require supplemental fertilizer.
How to grow Shagbark Hickory from Seed
Growing Hickory Trees from seed is a fun activity, and not too difficult to do. In this section I’m going to tell you how to harvest nuts, test their viability, and plant them.
Harvesting nuts for seed
You may begin collecting nuts from Shagbark Hickory trees in late Summer to early Fall. Once you observe the nuts falling naturally from the tree, you may begin to harvest them. For nuts that have fallen to the ground, be wary of any damage to the husk. This may indicate that insect larvae has burrowed into the nut, making it non-viable.
You will want to leave the nuts out in a well ventilated area to dry out for easy husk removal. As the husk dries it will shrink, and naturally peel away / release itself from the nut. Then peel the husk off and store the nut in the refrigerators. Do not let the nuts completely dry out though, as nuts that totally dry out will not be viable.
Inspect each nut you remove the husk from. If you see any small holes present, discard the nut. Small holes are evidence that insect larvae has burrowed into the nut and begun eating the meat.
Testing viability of Shagbark Hickory nuts
To test if a Shagbark Hickory nut is viable, drop it in a small container of water. Nuts that sink in water are fully formed and viable. Nuts that float should be discarded, as the nut did not fully form, or it could also have disease or insect larvae inside.
Storing nuts for planting
Viable nuts can be stored for germination in subsequent years. Nuts should be stored in sealed containers at 90% humidity at 40F. After two years, the nuts will have a lower germination percentage, but will only need 60 days cold stratification instead of 90-120. 
Planting Shagbark Hickory nuts
Shagbark Hickory nuts must go through a process known as cold-moist stratification of approximately 120 days. This happens naturally in nature by the nut being planted by Squirrels. We must do this too either by cold-stratifying the nuts in the refrigerator or via Winter Sowing the nuts. 
Cold stratifying Hickory nuts in the refrigerator
To cold stratify Hickory nuts in the refrigerator, mix up equal parts of moist sphagnum peat moss and sand (or vermiculite). You want the mixture to be moist, but not wet. If you squeeze a handful, only a few drops of water should drip out. Place the mixture in a large zip-lock bag or Tupperware container (with lid).
Place the nuts inside the mixture, and set it inside the refrigerator for three to four months (90-120 days). Hickory nuts that are stratified can be planted out in Spring to a depth of 2″ deep by placing the nut on it’s side.
Planting Hickory nuts in containers
Soak the Hickory nut in water for 24 hours before planting. Then fill a deep container (6″ deep minimum) with moist potting soil. Plant a Hickory nut 2″ deep, placing the nut on it’s side. Do not let the container completely dry out.
Winter Sowing Hickory Nuts
You can place a container with Hickory nuts outside for winter sowing, but you need to make sure that the pot does not totally freeze solid. To counteract the risks from freezing temperatures, you can either overwinter the pot in an unheated garage or shed, or bury the pot into the ground. Don’t forget to protect the pot from foraging squirrels!
Protecting your planted nuts
*Important* Hickory nuts should not be allowed to freeze solid. If prolonged freezing temperatures are expected, move any pots to an unheated garage or shed. Alternatively, you can bury the pot roughly 3/4 of it’s height into the ground, as this will help protect the nut from freezing.
Also, squirrels and chipmunks eat Hickory nuts as a food source. You must protect any pot or location with Hickory nuts by covering with chicken wire, hardware cloth, or a cage.
Direct Sowing Shagbark Hickory Nuts
If you know the final location you would like to grow a Hickory Tree, dig a hole approximately 2″ deep and place a viable nut on it’s side and then bury it to 2″ depth. Squirrels may attempt to dig up your nut, so protect the location by covering with chicken wire, hardware cloth, or a cage.
Seedling growth and development
Shagbark Hickory nuts will have hypogeal germination, resulting in a deep taproot and not much growth above the soil. Surveys have shown that at one year, a hickory seedling will have a taproot approximately 1′ long (30 cm) but only 6″ height above ground. While at year 3, their taproot will be over 2.5′ deep (80 cm), while top-growth is only 8″. 
Note that young seedlings of Shagbark Hickory are tolerant of shade, as most dense hardwood trees that may have to start under a forest canopy. But after some years, it will require sufficient sunlight to survive. In nature this normally occurs as other trees fall down, opening holes in the forest canopy. But, more sun will mean more growth both above and below the soil. 
Video guide to growing Shagbark Hickory from seed
Below is a video guide we made on how to grow Shagbark Hickory trees from seed. It covers all required steps as we have laid out here. And, you may recognize some of the footage from our pictures. I hope you enjoy:
Can you transplant Hickory seedlings?
Hickory seedlings are notoriously difficult to transplant, as the taproot can easily reach 1′ in depth by the end of the first year. If you find a sapling that is 2′ tall, well the taproot can easily go down 2-3′ and get thicker in diameter! It is therefore recommended that you purchase new trees or grow them from seed yourself.
Shagbark Hickory Growth Rate
The growth rate of Shagbark Hickory is slow to medium depending on conditions, generally being between 6-12″ per year. As the tree ages it will add more height per year. The trunk diameter will be around 1″ at 10 years, and 4″ at 30 years.
What Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases effect Shagbark Hickory
Shagbark Hickory nuts are one of the most preferred foods of chipmunks and squirrels. In fact it can be difficult to collect any nuts yourself if the trees are in a heavily wooded area, as Squirrels are free to collect every nut they can.
In addition to squirrels and chipmunks, bear, fox, rabbits, mice, and several bird species have been documented to eat the nuts to some degree. 
Deer and Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees are deer resistant. The foliage will occasionally be browsed, but overall it is deer resistant. Bark of saplings may be chewed by rabbits during times of heavy snow. But in general only livestock will eat Hickory foliage when other forage is unavailable.
The Shagbark Hickory tree hosts caterpillars of the Banded Hairstreak, Hickory Hairstreak, and over forty moths making it a host plant of high ecological value.
Woodpeckers will make use of Hickory trees by feeding on the many insects that feed on the wood.
There are over hundred and eighty insects that feed on the bark and wood, but most do not cause significant damage. However, holes made by woodpeckers who eat these insects can cause a discoloration in the wood, making the lumber less desirable.
There are several different insects that can have a negative effect on the Nut harvest. The Hickory Shuckworm, Hickorynut curculios, and Pecan Weevil can all cause much of the nuts to drop prematurely.
Hickory Bark Beetle
The Hickory Bark Beetle is most damaging insect to Hickory trees. Large infestations can occur during drought. These beetles act as a vector for multiple fungi that cause significant lesions under the bark, resulting in crown die back and death. To help prevent this disease, keep your tree watered with weekly deep watering during drought.  
One additional pest that effects large trees in the open is the Twig Pruner, Elaphidionoidesvillosus, which will attack twigs and branches resulting in their death. This can severely effect the appearance and form of younger trees.
Shagbark Hickory can be effected by over one hundred fungi, most of which are mushroom like saprophytes. There are also some that can effect foliage or cause trunk or root rot.
Canker rot can cause significant damage to Hickory trees. They form around dead branch stubs and can spread to and throughout the heartwood. If you notice any visible cankers near stumps where limbs were pruned or dead branches you should consult with an arborist.
Other common diseases that can effect Hickory are leaf cankers that initially looks like purple or reddish spots on upper leaf surfaces, and brown spots on the underside of the leaf. Witches broom may also form from either mildew that invades leaves/twigs or virus caused by sucking insects. 
Although Shagbark Hickory is resistant to Verticillium Wilt, it can get Crown Gall can cause tumors or wart-like growths on roots near the base of the trunk. This disease can be fatal if untreated.
One other note – powdery mildew can effect Shagbark Hickory. Although it’s effect is just cosmetic.
Where to buy Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees are not sold in regular garden centers or big box stores. Partly this is because of the trees taproot make transplanting difficult. And thus only very small trees, smaller than most people would like to buy them, are available.
However, there is one company I am aware of that carries Shagbark Hickory trees in the form of Bare Roots. Cold Stream Farm is a bare root tree supplier out of Michigan. I have no affiliation with this company, but have been a customer of them (twice) in the past. I was always pleased with their product, so consider this an endorsement.
Varieties of Shagbark Hickory
There are a number of varieties of Shagbark Hickory available that have been ‘selected’ for nut size and ease of cracking. These may only be available regionally, but they include:
- ‘Wilcox’, which was discovered in Ohio
- A natural variety ‘Porter’, which is from Pennsylvania
- ‘Harold’, which was found in Wisconsin
- A naturally occurring variety ‘Grainger’ in Tennessee
Uses of Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees can make a nice specimen, or beautiful row for a windbreak or landscape border. Their deep taproot mean they can withstand heavy winds or derechos. Unfortunately their slow rate of growth prevents them from being popular.
Shagbark Hickory nuts are sweet and edible, and easy to crack in comparison to other tree nuts. It has been reported that only Pecan has greater domestic commercial value for nuts. They are much easier to process than Black Walnut. As their husks dry and naturally shrink/peel they fall off easily.
If you are interested in harvesting Hickory nuts, I highly recommend you have a look at this nutcracker. It is BY FAR the easiest way to crack any nut.
Hickory lumber is very hard, with a Janka hardness of over 1700 lbf. It is one of the hardest woods native to North America.  It’s high hardness, but flexibility make it an excellent choice for applications that may require shock resistance such as hardwood flooring, tool handles, gym flooring, or other gymnasium applications.
Hickory lumber can often produce interesting grain patterns that can be desirable for artistic table top or furniture applications, flooring, or cabinetry. The problem one may run into though is supply, as often the lumber comes from mixed lots resulting in inconsistent grain patterns/colors (for flooring applications).
Shagbark Hickory has a very high heating value. It has historically been utilized for making wood charcoal, and is excellent for heating homes or in the form of wood pellets.
For smoking meat
Shagbark Hickory wood is frequently used in smoking and barbecue. The wood adds a rich smoky flavor and is often used in smoking / curing different meats. For example, one can commonly encounter “Hickory Smoked” bacon in the supermarket.
Due to the slower growth rate of Shagbark Hickory, it pairs well with White Oak, which as a similar growth rate. And, you often find both species together in the forest. It can be outcompeted for sunlight by faster growing trees such as Pin Oak or Maple.
Pawpaw can also be a good understory tree to plant near Shagbark Hickory, and they are often found growing in close proximity.
Native American uses of Shagbark Hickory
Native American tribes had many uses for Shagbark Hickory, the most obvious one being food. But documentation exists of approximately 50 uses by 12 different Tribes.
Culinary uses ranged from storing nuts to use as a Winter food to making soups, puddings, and pies. Wood and bark was boiled to make syrup and sugar. Nut meats were also boiled and strained to make a ‘Hickory milk’ that was said to taste similar to cream. 
Medicinal uses include using fresh shoots as an inhalant for headaches, an infusion of bark was used as a gynecological aid, the bark was used in a tonic as a ‘cure all’. The Iroquois also used bark for arthritis, to treat worms, and as a skin or hair product.  
The wood was prized by several tribes in bow making. Noted for it’s flexibility and strength, Shagbark Hickory would make a strong bow. It has been noted that one wanted a piece of wood that had both sapwood and heartwood, with sapwood closest the user. Wood was also used to make snowshoes.
 – Graney, David L. “Carya ovata (Mill) K. Koch Shagbark hickory.” Silvics of North America 2 (1990): 219-225.
 – Farrar, John Laird. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Iowa State University Press, 1995. pp203-204.
 – Sternberg, Guy. Landscaping with native trees : the Northeast, Midwest, Midsouth & Southeast edition, 1995, pp. 70-71.
 – Gilbert, Barry L., James E. Baker, and Dale M. Norris. “Juglone (5-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) from Carya ovata, a deterrent to feeding by Scolytus multistriatus.” Journal of Insect Physiology 13.10 (1967): 1453-1459.
 – Alasalvar, Cesarettin, and Fereidoon Shahidi. Tree nuts: Composition, phytochemicals, and health effects: An overview. CRC press, 2008. pp
 – Robison, Scott A., and BRIAN C. McCARTHY. “Growth responses of Carya ovata (Juglandaceae) seedlings to experimental sun patches.” The American midland naturalist 141.1 (1999): 69-84.
 – Juzwik, Jennifer; Haugen, Linda; Park, Ji-Hyun; Moore, Melanie. 2008. Fungi associated with stem cankers and coincidental scolytid beetles on declining hickory in the upper midwest. In: Jacobs, Douglass F.; Michler, Charles H., eds. 2008. Proceedings, 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 2008 April 8-9; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-24. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 476-482.
 – Juzwik, Jennifer; Park, Ji-Huyn; Haugen, Linda. 2010. Hickory decline and mortality: Update on hickory decline research. In: Feeley, Tivon, comp. Iowa’s forest health report 2010. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry: 53-58.
 – North American Ethnobotany Database. Accessed 22AUG2022
 – Gilmore, Melvin R., 1919, “Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region“, SI-BAE Annual Report #33, page 74
 – Waugh, F. W., 1916, “Iroquis Foods and Food Preparation“, Ottawa. Canada Department of Mines, page 123
 – Oberle, Brad, et al. “Progressive, idiosyncratic changes in wood hardness during decay: Implications for dead wood inventory and cycling.” Forest ecology and management 323 (2014): 1-9.
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