Eastern Red Columbine, A Complete Profile

Wild Columbine (Aquilegia Canadensis), is a beautiful perennial native to North America.  I’ve grown dozens of Columbine over the years and have learned the best practices for germinating, growing, and caring for Columbines. So, read on if you would like to learn everything you need to know about Wild Columbine.

Columbine flower

*Although this article primarily focuses on Eastern Red Columbine (since that is my favorite), the growing conditions for any Columbine are essentially the same.

Almost like a beautiful, petite, lantern. Columbine, Aquilegia Canadensis
Aquilegia Canadensis, Eastern Red Columbine in Bloom

Columbine is a great spring garden plant to jump start color in your garden.  Also known as Canada Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis, the numerous lantern-like blooms are attractive and interesting to look upon. 

I’ve found them to be adaptable to a large number of environments.  Columbine is one of the three flowers described in our Early Spring Wildflowers article, which can provide your garden color from March-June (depending on your zone).


  • Columbines are generally hardy in zones 3-8.  Fine your garden zone here.
  • Many references will refer to Columbines as shade plants. But, Columbine grows just fine in Full Sun as well (I have them in both).
  • Will typically grow to about 2′ (70 cm) tall, but can reach 3′ (1m), and about 1-1.5′ spread (30-60 cm)
  • Columbine need to have well drained soil.
  • In the wild, or in a meadow, they don’t handle competition well and can be crowded out by larger plants.
  • Columbines will bloom for about a month, up to 6 weeks in late spring to early summer
  • Columbines are loved by hummingbirds and bumblebees.
  • Although they attract hummingbirds and other pollinators, did you know that Columbines can self-pollinate?

But before we go further, we should look at the basic growing condition facts.

Columbine Reference Table

Common NameEastern Red Columbine, Wild Columbine
Scientific nameAquilegia canadensis
USDA Garden Zone3-8
Bloom TimeApril-June
Bloom Duration4-6 weeks
Bloom Size1.5” / 3.5 cm
Height1-3’, 30-90 cm
Spacing/Spread1-2’, 30-60 cm
Light RequirementsFull Sun, Part Shade, Shade
Soil TypesPrimarily needs to be well drained.  I’ve found it to be very tolerant of poor soil.
MoisturePrefers moist, but must drain. No standing water.
MaintenanceWell self-seed vigorously
Typical UseLandscaped flower bed, woodland garden, meadow
Fauna AssociationsNectar preferred by hummingbirds.  Deer and rabbits will browse foliage of columbine.
Larval HostColumbine Duskywing
Sowing DepthSurface
Stratification30 days cold/moist
Native RangeEastern United States – typically grows where other plants can’t (rock outcroppings, etc)
References [1][2][3]

Identification & characteristics


The stalk will be 1-3′ tall and may have some branching. It will be light green or red in color, with small hairs along the stem. [1]


The lobed leaves are attractive all summer long with different shades of green, blue, and purple.  This is a great way to get some early color into your garden, and is particularly nice for shady areas or rain gardens.  I’ve grown columbine in both full sun and shade without issue. 

The leaves of Eastern Columbine are divided twice in lobes an structure. [1]

columbine leaf
The smooth, deep-lobed leaves of Columbine are unmistakable!


The flowers are ‘nodding’ and hang down in a nodding stem situation. The flowers have five petals and a corresponding spur. [1]

The blooms of columbines look like some form of Chinese lantern or lampshade to me.  It is quite beautiful to see them dangling upside down in a gentle breeze. 

Columbine blooms are truly a work of art by themselves

Watching a hummingbird go from bloom to bloom, hovering underneath to reach the nectar is fun to watch, and the more you have the more hummingbirds you should see.

Hummingbirds love the nectar, and I’ve found that they are generally drawn to the color red.  And since it is an early bloomer, having Columbine in your garden can encourage hummingbirds to build their nests nearby.

Columbine Bloom
Eastern Red Columbine, Auilegia Canadensis


Columbine will have a fibrous root system. This should be evident based on where it typically grows in the wild, namely rock outcroppings with little soil.

Is Columbine aggressive?

In a mulched or formal flowerbed, columbines are known for self-seeding. I am speaking of 10+ years experience growing this flower – you will be pulling unwanted seedlings in the Spring. Deadheading Columbine will reduce the amount of ‘volunteers’ you have in the Spring though.

Nonetheless, it is not difficult to pull the seedlings in Spring. I find that I can remove 20-30 plants in roughly as many minutes. I just throw them on the compost pile, thus the overall job isn’t a big deal.

Red Columbine Flowers
I snapped this picture in almost perfect light. The morning dew was still holding on to the stalks.

Columbine Growing Requirements

In the wild you will find Columbine growing on the forest floor, or on limestone cliffs, and in general where there aren’t a lot of other plants. So, that is why so many references tell you that this is a ‘shade’ plant. But in reality, Columbine will grow just fine, and even thrive in full sun.

For soil, the key thing is that it drains well. The one place you won’t find these plants is in a bog or swamp. Now, since the root system is shallow, you may need to provide supplemental watering during drought. But these are low maintenance plants.

So, you can grow them in a wide variety of places, but one of the least maintenance locations for these plants is at the base of trees, or anywhere that gets shade in the afternoon. 

Here is a short video giving a good overview on grow and care of Columbine.

Growing Columbine from seed

Germinating Columbine seed isn’t hard. But, Columbine need to have cold/moist stratification before germinating [2].  So, to break the dormancy of the seed you need to do one of the following:

  • Direct sow the seed in Fall. Sprinkle seed on the soil where you want the plant to grow.
  • Winter Sow the seeds in January-February
    • See our winter sowing step by step guide here
  • Cold Moist Stratify the seeds in the Spring using the fridge
    • See our cold stratification guide here

Columbine Seed Planting Depth

The seed requires sunlight to break the dormancy, so I usually just plant them on the surface of the soil, pressing them in. That’s right, the seed of Columbine needs to be surface sown, but still have good contact with the soil to keep it moist.  I’ve found the easiest way to germinate them is to winter sow them. 

You just plant them in small pots as you would with any other seed.  But, you do this in the winter and set them outside to finish wintering, but keep them covered with some translucent cover.

columbine seedlings aquilegia canadensis
Columbine Seedlings, ready for transplanting into the garden

Purchase Seed

We have ordered a variety of native flower seeds from Everwilde Farms, which you can order right from Amazon through our link on our RECOMMENDED PRODUCTS PAGE. (We may earn a small commission when you purchase through our links, at no cost to you. This helps support our website.)

Germinating them in the Summertime – cold stratification

If you decide you want to grow them in the summer, and can’t winter sow, it is possible but much more difficult.  What you need to do is use our paper towel / refrigeration method to cold stratify the seed.  I actually used this method the first time I grew Columbine from seed.

Also, studies have shown that priming the seed in water prior to stratification can increase germination percentages (but I have not tried this).

Again, winter sowing is far easier with this plant.  The main reason it is easier is that the seeds aren’t as likely to dry out.  The soil just tends to dry out in the hot summer more easily, which makes germination difficult.

From germination to transplant….

Once the seeds germinate, after they get their first true leaves (after the two that are present at germination), I transplant the whole cell to a larger pot.  And then just grow them until they are large enough for transplant to the garden.

One of the most unique flowers in America. Columbine, Aquilegia Canadensis
Underneath bloom of Columbine, Aquilegia Canadensis,

Alternatively, if you collect seeds from mature plants in the summer (~July) you can just sprinkle them in a clear area.  I’ve found they will germinate if they are fresh seeds from blooms. 

A mature Columbine plant in full bloom. This plant is approximately 18″ tall, growing under an Eastern Redbud tree

In fact, this plant will make many, many new plants through self-seeding.  So, if there is not much competition it can fill in an area quite nicely.

How long will it take for a Columbine bloom if growing from seed?

You can expect a Columbine grown from seed to bloom the following season.  I’ve not seen any bloom their first year, as they generally seem to just focus on getting a good root system and establishing themselves.  The first year you can expect to have a small, compact plant of deep-lobed leaves.

Columbine Seedling
This Columbine Seedling was free from my other plants! These do go to seed quite well.

Should you deadhead Columbine flowers?

Deadheading Columbine flowers will prolong the blooming period, and it will also help reduce self-seeding.  I used to not deadhead, as I just felt I was too busy. However, I find that it is worth the 10-15 minutes nowadays as that way I don’t have to pull so many unwanted plants in Spring.

Fall/Winter maintenance

Since this plant is herbaceous, meaning that it doesn’t have a woody stem or any foliage that stays over winter, you can remove dead foliage after the plant has gone dormant.  If you grow Columbines in a well kept flower bed, and wish to keep it tidy then you can remove the foliage after the plant has turned brown after you’ve had freezing temperatures. 

Alternatively, you don’t have to do anything.  The following Spring this plant will send up new shoots/leaves weather or not you clear away the dead leaves from the previous season.  So, it is just kind of up to you and what kind of garden you have.

How to collect and save Columbine Seeds

Saving columbine seeds is incredibly easy!  After the blooms have finished, and the pods are dried up and crispy, the seed should be ready for harvest.  Just snip off the pods and place them in a brown paper bag.  Let them dry in a cool dark place for about a week, then just shake the bag up. 

The seed will just fall right out of the pods.  1-2 plants should produce hundreds of seeds.  The seeds are very tiny, black, and very shiny.  I’ve always wondered why they looked so polished.  This video shows the overall process very well:

Alternatively, if you just want to get some more plants this year, you can scatter the seed where you want more Columbines to grow.  They self-seed vigorously.  Even if you do nothing, you are likely to get dozens of volunteer seedlings the same year the plants first bloom. 

These can be transplanted to other areas or shared with friends when they are very small, or in the following early Spring when the plants begin emerging.

Threats from animals eating Columbines

columbine rabbit damage aquilegia
All the leaves on this columbine have been eaten by rabbits. Fortunately the blooms were left alone.

The other risk to these plants are rabbits eating them.  Rabbits will eat the leaves and stems on young columbine plants.  I have found that if they are browsed by rabbits they can recover if the plants are large enough. 

In my gardens, I spray them with liquid fence when they emerge every week for about a month.  This keeps the hungry animals away, allowing them to grow large enough to bloom nicely.  Also, they typically aren’t eaten by deer – but it can happen.  However, liquid fence has always worked for me, as long as I keep up with the applications.

So, plant them where they can have their own area, It can be in full sun to shade, as long as the soil will drain.  Then, enjoy the early spring blooms from this flower, and keep an eye out for hummingbirds, as they are very likely to visit.  As another benefit, they will self-seed heavily, so you should have no shortage of plants in your garden.

Problems with Columbines

Like most plants, Columbines are susceptible to various fungi, pests and disease.

Leaf Miners – The most common issue I’ve seen is a leaf miner bug that leaves light colored squiggly lines in the leaves.  These lines just look strange, and I’ve never lost a plant because of an infestation.

Powdery Mildew – This is a fungus that occurs in damp conditions.  Since Columbines are often planted in shade, it can be more prevalent if it is a particularly wet year or there isn’t much airflow through the plant.  So if you have a thick stand of Columbine, it will be more likely to occur.

Other Fungus – There are several other fungi that can attack Columbine as well as other plants.  Common ones are grey mold on the leaves/stem, or black spots on the leaves.  Treatment of this should be the same as powdery mildew, ie ensure plenty of airflow, drainage in soil, and possibly a fungicide.

Typical Columbine Uses in Garden

As stated, Columbines are very adaptable to a wide variety of conditions.  They can be great for a shady area that doesn’t get much sun or a rain garden.  Due to their size, they can make a nice border on a shady side of your house. 

I use them under trees, and out in the open in a more ‘general’ meadow.  However, if you plant them near other plants keep an eye on them to make sure they don’t get ‘crowded out’ as they don’t handle competition well.

Columbine Plant bloom patch
A large, healthy, 3-foot tall Columbine in my ‘wild patch’.

I’ve actually used these in full sun areas for years, and as long as the soil holds enough moisture they do fine.  I have several growing in out backyard micro-prairie. 

See how to start your own micro-prairie here.  It will bring in more pollinating bees and butterflies than you would believe.  And you get to watch the birds pick out seeds from seed heads during Autumn/Winter.

There are many types of Columbines

Since I live in the Mid-Atlantic I primarily focus on Aquilegia Canadensis, or Eastern Red Columbine.  This is the native variety where I live, and it has evolved to thrive out here.  But there are many beautiful varieties that are native throughout the USA. 

A few that come to mind are the blue/purple varieties of Auilegia Aplina or Olympica, and the yellow variety Aquilegia chrysantha.  Your local garden center likely has several in stock throughout the Spring/Summer, and there many different seed varieties available.

A must for attracting hummingbirds

Large Columbine Flower Patch

Growing Columbines will help to attract hummingbirds to your garden.  It is one of the earliest nectar sources for them, and can encourage them to build nests nearby.  If you really want to attract hummingbirds, grow multiple specimens.  It is a pretty simple principal – more food, more hummingbirds!

Thank you for reading this article.  If you’ve enjoyed it, head over to our Native Plant Section to find more guides. Follow us on Pinterest & Instagram.   And don’t forget to sign up for our email newsletter!

How long do Columbines live?

Columbines are classified as a perennial, meaning they should come back year after year.  Some varieties act more like biennials, meaning that they grow the first year, bloom the second, and then die.  So, it is always a good idea to leave some of the seedlings. 

But I’ve had mine live for at least 34 years, and if they come back for a fourth fifth I will be sure to update this article.  There is plenty of variation in nature, so it probably depends on the species more than anything.



[1] – Duncan, Wilbur H., and Marion B. Duncan. Wildflowers of the eastern United States. Vol. 20. University of Georgia Press, 2005.

[2] – Plant Guide, Aquilegia Canadensis. USDA NRCS. Accessed 04MAR2023

[3] – Red Columbine. USDA NRCS. Accessed 04MAR2023.

Joe Foster

Hi - I grew up outdoors in nature - hiking, fishing, hunting. In high school I got my first job at a garden center where I learned to garden and landscape. I've been growing plants from seed and designing native plant gardens for over 10 years. I hope to share some of my knowledge with you! You may have seen some of my videos I create on our YouTube channel, GrowitBuildit (more than 10 million views!). You can find my channel here: https://youtube.com/@growitbuildit Additionally I am a wood worker / DIY enthusiast. I enjoy designing/building projects (with hand tools when I can!). I hope to give you some tips and useful information!

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